Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in changing mountain grassland ecosystems: a challenge for research
Champignons mycorrhiziens arbuscules dans des écosystèmes montagnards changeants : un exploit pour la recherche
Wahl, A.L. ; Spiegelberger, T.
Type de document
Article de revue scientifique à comité de lecture
Affiliation de l'auteur
IRSTEA GRENOBLE UR EMGR FRA ; IRSTEA GRENOBLE UR EMGR FRA
Résumé / Abstract
Even though arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are present from foothills to all alpine habitats, research on their role in mountain ecosystems remains incomplete. Here we provide a literature review of the ecology and functioning of AMF in mountain ecosystems as well as their response to global change. We investigated how AMF abundance, community composition and fungal traits are studied under field conditions and affected by altitude, habitat patchiness, succession, host identity, seasonality and interaction with other living organisms. The effects of climate change, nutrient enrichment, land use change and their interactions are also addressed in this review, as well as possible applications of AMF for grassland restoration. We show that altitudinal effects on AMF are blurred by other environmental gradients and by host plant identity. The benefits to plants and possible facilitation effects by AMF in mountain ecosystems have not yet been identified. Based on the stress gradient hypothesis, the symbiosis between plants and AMF should become more mutualistic with increasing environmental stress. We propose a working hypothesis for the functioning of the AMF–plant interaction along altitudinal gradients by grading it along the mutualism–parasitism continuum considering current and global change conditions. We conclude by suggesting further research directions.
Botany, vol. 94, num. 6, p. 435 - 458